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Figure 2(a) (i) shows that the MPF jets from the bottom of perforated bullets to the hole wall and continuously stretches its length during the movement. Figure 2(a) (ii) illustrates the moment the MPF strikes the hole wall. At this point, the pressure, temperature, and velocity of the MPF reach a maximum and a shockwave is injected to the hole wall through the contact point. Meanwhile, the hole wall imparts via the MPF a reflected shockwave and a rarefaction wave, and some of the metal particles are piled up at the entrance, while the remainder are ejected. Figure 2(a) (iii) demonstrates that the MPF continuously strikes the hole wall, and the perforation hole is gradually deepened. Figure 2(a) (iv) shows that a discontinuous state of the MPF. When the speed is below a certain critical value, the impact strength of the MPF is greatly reduced, and the jetting process ends.
Scientists have studied Mars by peering through telescopes, sending robotic spacecraft to orbit the planet, and placing landers and robotic rovers on its surface. Thanks to this exploration, we have learned quite a lot about what Earth and Mars have in common and about what makes each planet unique.
With the rapid development of ocean technology, the deep-sea manned submersible is regarded as a high-tech equipment for the exploration and exploitation of ocean resources. The safety of manned cabin has a decisive effect on the whole system. Ti-6Al-4V with the superior strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance has been used for the manned cabin. The manned cabin experiences loading spectrum with different maximum stresses and different dwell time during their service life. The load sequence effects on dwell fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti-6Al-4V under different dwell time are investigated experimentally in this paper. The experimental results show that the crack tip plastic zone is enlarged by the dwell time and the overload retardation zone increases with dwell time under the same overload rate. A dwell fatigue crack growth model is proposed by modifying the crack tip plastic zone under the loading history with combinations of the single overload and dwell time factors are included in the modified model. Based on the experimental data, the overload retardation zone and the crack growth rates of Ti-6Al-4V are predicted by the modified model. A reasonable model for the load sequence effect on the dwell fatigue crack growth rates of Ti-6Al-4V is verified.
The Challenger Deep is a relatively small slot-shaped depression in the bottom of a considerably larger crescent-shaped oceanic trench, which itself is an unusually deep feature in the ocean floor. The Challenger Deep consists of three basins, each 6 to 10 km (3.7 to 6.2 mi) long, 2 km (1.2 mi) wide, and over 10,850 m (35,597 ft) in depth, oriented in echelon from west to east, separated by mounds between the basins 200 to 300 m (656 to 984 ft) higher. The three basins feature extends about 48 km (30 mi) west to east if measured at the 10,650 m (34,941 ft) isobath. Both the western and eastern basins have recorded depths (by sonar bathymetry) in excess of 10,920 m (35,827 ft), while the center basin is slightly shallower. The closest land to the Challenger Deep is Fais Island (one of the outer islands of Yap), 287 km (178 mi) southwest, and Guam, 304 km (189 mi) to the northeast.Detailed sonar mapping of the western, center and eastern basins in June 2020 by the DSSV Pressure Drop combined with crewed descents revealed that they undulate with slopes and piles of rocks above a bed of pelagic ooze. This conforms with the description of Challenger Deep as consisting of an elongated seabed section with distinct sub-basins or sediment-filled pools.
The accuracy of determining geographical location, and the beamwidth of (multibeam) echosounder systems, limits the horizontal and vertical bathymetric sensor resolution that hydrographers can obtain from onsite data. This is especially imp